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    中醫理論中的"真氣"是什么?

    “真氣”的定義,原本是生命學和中醫學的專用名詞,從漢代開始,社會上其它學科開始進行引用,并且它的定義也出現了變化……
     

    《黃帝內經》對真氣的定義:

     

    關于“真氣”的定義,既是在《黃帝內經》中提出,同時也是在這部經典中作了準確的定義界定。《素問·上古天真論》:“恬惔虛無,真氣從之。”《素問·離合真邪論》:“真氣者,經氣也。”

     

    現代人容易理解白話文,那么就可以解讀為:真氣是由先天元氣與后天水谷之精氣結合而化生,能夠在經絡中被傳輸轉運輸布的能量,真氣是維持全身組織、器官生理功能的基本物質與原動力。

     

    真氣也需要正確的生理調節:

     

    《素問·評熱病論》:“真氣上逆,故口苦舌干,臥不得正偃,正偃則咳出清水也。”最佳的調節方法:“恬惔虛無,真氣從之。”又:“候邪不審,大氣已過,瀉之則真氣脫,脫則不復。”《靈樞·邪客》:“如是者,邪氣得去,真氣堅固,是謂因天之序。”

     

    真氣具有與邪氣相對和可以抵制、清除邪氣的功效,它們是一對具有陰陽屬性的質元物質,在品質上真氣已經處在“二”屬性中,并不是像先天元氣那樣,屬于“一”的品質與形質。

     

    真氣定義的變遷異化:

     

    “真氣”的定義,原本是生命學和中醫學的專用名詞,從漢代開始,社會上其它學科開始進行引用,并且它的定義也出現了變化,主要是出現了泛義化。

     

    唐·王維《賀元元皇帝見真容表》:“臣聞仙祖行化,真氣臨關;圣人降生,祥光滿室。” 這里的“仙祖行化,真氣臨關”,并不是“行化”過程中的關鍵物質,關鍵物質應當是光氣,而并非真氣。

     

    “氣”的本義,源自于黃老思想中的道學大唯物主義和唯德辯證法思想。老子指出:“道生之,而德畜之,物形之,而器成之。是以萬物尊道而貴德。”“道生一,一生二,二生三,三生萬物,萬物負陰而抱陽,中氣以為和”。

     

    德是畜養萬物的根本物質能量。“虛無生萬有,德一養萬物”,這就是有相宇宙的基本法則。德這個數學模型是“一”的能量,彌散于宇宙之中,無形無象,人類的智識與意識無法直接觀察到它的存在,只有在慧識的參與下才能發現。德一的能量物質,一旦進入任何有相有形的物質,即是古代先圣們命名的“氣”。故游離于物相之外時,則命名為“德”,以數表示則是“一”,進入物相中以后,即可名之曰“氣(炁)”。

     

    所以老子說:“中氣以為和”。這個“中”字既有生物自主能量發動機之義,又有處于物相其中、存在于物相之內的含義。德一的能量一旦進入任何物相之中,不僅更名為“氣”,而且還會隨著物相屬性的不同、品質的分類和功能的差異演化出各種不同的帶有物相特征的命名。例如,真氣即是指經脈中運行的德一能量之氣,腎內的德一能量即名之為“腎氣”,體表防衛邪氣入侵的則名之為“衛氣”等等。

     

    中國古代通過內文明所發現和大量記載并且在歷史上被廣泛應用,從而構建成東方文化特征的“道”、“德”、“陰陽”、“中氣”等等理論和方法,由于是通過內求法獲得所建立起來的大系統,因此西方只通過外求法、邏輯推理、實驗證偽驗證的文化,在相當長的一段時間內,無法正確解讀東方的文明和文化。“以西解中”長期無法得出正確的結論。

     

    進入二十一世紀以后,隨著西方科學的精細發展,以及對生命科學探索的綜合展開,科學界的先行者們已經開始認同道德根文化的超前性。相信不久以后,隨著科學的發展,兩者必定會殊途同歸,同歸于德和道。

     

    本文摘自《德道行天下》Ⅱ第三冊,作者熊春錦,中國言實出版社,ISBN 978-7-8025-0826-2

    轉載于 徳慧智 微信公眾號


    (責任編輯:清靜自然)
    版權聲明:本文章來自德道根文化·老子學院網,文章網址:http://www.aiguiren.com/home/html/huangxue/20180113/1556.html請轉載時注明!

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