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    以德為本,以道為師

    在先秦諸子中,莊子也是始終直接從事教育工作,并且培養著許多弟子。《老子》五千言,以道德二字為宗旨,莊子不僅完全繼承了老子的思想,而且其師道觀也發展了老子的師道思想。老子貴師,莊子也重師。莊子的師道觀與其整體思想是相一致的。簡而言之,即以德為本,以道
    在先秦諸子中,莊子也是始終直接從事教育工作,并且培養著許多弟子。《老子》五千言,以“道德”二字為宗旨,莊子不僅完全繼承了老子的思想,而且其師道觀也發展了老子的師道思想。老子“貴師”,莊子也重師。莊子的師道觀與其整體思想是相一致的。簡而言之,即以德為本,以道為師。
    德是天地人萬物的實質。《老子·貴德》章云:“道生之而德畜之。”德長養了萬物,德能的多寡是決定萬物生、成、壞、滅久暫的關鍵。《老子·善觀》章云:“修之身,其德乃真”。此德須落實在自身的實際修養上才能實現。
    以德為本,即意身清靜上德明。指通過修身來明德知道、修德進道,進而淳德合道,完成心身的全面德化歸道,使心為道心,身為德器,“恒德不離”,“執一以為天下牧”。達到《莊子·繕性》篇所云“動而與陽同波,靜而與陰同德。”“陰陽和靜”,德一穩固。老子在五千言中所闡述的“可非恒道”、“可非恒名”,就是非常科學有效的自我修身教育方法。在《莊子》中,有關德的內涵、效用方面的論述還有不少。如《德充符》中記載了許多養德而忘形者,他們的德行豐厚,以致使人們忘記了其形體的不全,如王駘,跟他學的弟子和孔子的學生在魯國各占一半,他立不施教,坐不議論,跟他學的人空虛而來,滿載而歸,孔子也愿意領天下人向他求學。如哀駘它,國君與其相處不到一個月,就發現他有過人之處,不到一年,就很信任他,并且想把國事托給他。同篇中借孔子之言來論德:“德者,成和之修也。德不形者,物不能離也。”(即說德,是最純美的修養。德不著形跡,萬物自然親附而不肯離去。)《天地》云:“德人者,居無思,行無慮,不藏是非美惡。四海之內共利之之謂悅,共給之之謂安;怊乎若嬰兒之失其母也,儻乎若行而失其道也。財用有余而不知其所自來,飲食取足而不知其所從,此謂德人之容。”《秋水》云:“至德者,火弗能熱,水弗能溺,寒暑弗能害,禽獸弗能賊。”德不僅是道的顯現,也是莊子的立身之道,《山木》云:“周將處于材與不材之間。材與不材之間,似之而非也,故未免乎累。若夫乘道德而游則不然。”并且告誡弟子,可以安身立命的,只有道和德的領域了!《達生》中借孔子言,指出:“無入而藏,無出而陽。柴立其中央。三者若得,其名至極。”
     
    以道為師,即心性修持大道生,至心修道,精誠通天。以德為本,是以道為師的基礎,正如“意身清靜上德明”是“心性修持大道生”的基礎一樣。莊子所重的師,在不同的層面有不同內涵。第一,直接以道為師,尊師就是重道。讓人們同道合德,心身口意時刻與道同在,起心動念不離道德。道因德顯,德是進道之梯。《中庸》云:“道不可須臾離也,可離非道也。”道德就是人類的精神食糧,就象人類生存所必須的陽光空氣一樣,須臾不可離。這多是莊子自己的修身實踐與體悟。
    如《莊子·天道》云:“吾師乎!吾師乎!齏萬物而不為義,澤及萬世而不為仁,長于上古而不為壽,覆載天地、刻雕眾形而不為巧。”“夫道,于大不終,于小不遺,故萬物備,廣廣乎其無不容也,淵淵乎其不可測也。”《天地》云:“夫子曰:‘夫道,覆載萬物者也,洋洋乎大哉!’”《內篇·大宗師》中云,“知天之所為、知人之所為者,至矣。知天之所為者,天而生也;知人之所為者,以其知之所知,以養其知之所不知,終其天年而不中道夭者,是知之盛也。”“雖然,有患。夫知有所待而后當,其所待者特未定也。庸詎知吾所謂天之非人乎?所謂人之非天乎?且有真人而后有真知。”
    第二,以萬物為師,以眾生為師。提醒人們和光同塵,能夠處下不爭。以眾人為師,包括了社會中各個階層的有道者。首先,指至人、真人、神人、圣人。他們都是已經通過修身達到天人合一境界、全面體悟了道的本質、從而得道的有道者。《逍遙游》云:“至人無己,神人無功,圣人無名”“藐姑射之山,有神人居焉,肌膚若冰雪,綽約若處子。不食五谷,吸風飲露,乘云氣,御飛龍,而游乎四海之外。其神凝,使物不疵癘而年谷熟。”《天下》云:“不離于宗,謂之天人。不離于精,謂之神人。不離于真,謂之至人。以天為宗,以德為本,以道為門,兆于變化,謂之圣人。以仁為恩,以義為理,以禮為行,以樂為和,熏然慈仁,謂之君子。”《大宗師》云:“古之真人,不逆寡,不雄成,不謨士。若然者,過而弗悔,當而不自得也。若然者,登高不栗,入水不濡,入火不熱。是知之能登假于道者也若此。古之真人,其寢不夢,其覺無憂,其食不甘,其息深深。真人之息以踵,眾人之息以喉。屈服者,其嗌言若哇。其耆欲深者,其天機淺。古之真人,不知說生,不知惡死;其出不?,其入不距;翛然而往,翛然而來而已矣。不忘其所始,不求其所終;受而喜之,忘而復之,是之謂不以心損道,不以人助天,是之謂真人。”《莊子·應帝王》云:“至人之用心若鏡,不將不迎,應而不藏,故能勝而不傷”。《齊物論》云:“至人神矣!大澤焚而不能熱,河漢冱而不能寒,疾雷破山、飄風振海而不能驚。若然者,乘云氣,騎日月,而游乎四海之外。死生無變于己,而況利害之端乎!”《齊物論》云:“圣人不從事于務,不就利,不違害,不喜求,不緣道;無謂有謂,有謂無謂,而游乎塵垢之外。”《刻意》云:“無仁義而修,無功名而治,無江海而閑,不道引而壽,無不忘也,無不有也,澹然無極而眾美從之。此天地之道,圣人之德也。”這應是莊子所師從的人中道德修養境界最高者。
    其次,多指大人。具體包括帝王師、王侯友、隱逸士等,如廣成子(《在宥》)、許由、田子方(《田子方》)、臧地丈人(《田子方》)、徐無鬼(《徐無鬼》)、伯成子高(《天地》),及《德充符》中的養德忘形者、孔子等。這都是能行不言之教、德行豐厚者,而且非常稱職而有作為。
    最后,指以掌握了某一技術,因術而悟道者,如梓慶削木為鐻達到了鬼斧神工(《達生》)、凝神守一用志不分的佝僂丈人(《達生》)、目視神運而解牛的庖丁(《養生主》)、《知北游》中的捶鉤者、善蹈水的呂梁丈人(《達生》)、善畫圖而“指與物化”的工倕(《達生》)等等,這些多為能工巧匠,能夠虛心合道、淡泊無為、以事悟道者。
    以萬物為師,指物類中也有體道者,如櫟社樹(《人間世》),有保全自身之道。《至樂》中的骷髏,也有一番悟道言論。其他如鴻蒙(《在宥》)等書中提到的許多寓言式的形象,都有道者之言。這些形象身上都體現了莊子本人“天地與我并生,而萬物與我為一”(《莊子·齊物論》)、眾生與我一體的思想。
    《老子·道注》章云:“道者,萬物之注也”。道化生了萬物,因此萬物均含道,應師其道性,師無常師。《莊子·知北游》云:“人之生,氣之聚也;聚則為生,散則為死。若死生為徒,吾又何患?故萬物一也,是其所美者為神奇,其所惡者為臭腐;臭腐復化為神奇,神奇復化為臭腐。故曰:‘通天下一氣耳,圣人故貴一。’”能夠慈容化同,唯道是從,當心清靜平等,自然穿透一切有相,挫兌解紛,與圣心相通相印;當心虛無恬淡,自能空明純粹,復返本原,洞悉萬物本質。正如《老子·治水》章所云:“上善治水。水善利萬物而有靜,居眾之所惡,故幾于道矣。居善地,心善潚,予善信,正善治,事善能,踵善時。夫唯不爭,故無憂。”《莊子·齊物論》云:“夫隨其成心而師之,誰獨且無師乎?”在《莊子》中,凡有一技之長者,均可為人師。
    以道為師,先須明理。要明理,又須師從明師,而明師就是體悟了道,能夠與道為一,是道的人間化身,是連接修真者與大道的中繼站。除了師從明師之外,還須以經為師,時常諷誦學習道德經典,凈化心身,提高自性覺悟。《莊子·大宗師》云:“南伯子葵問乎女偊曰:‘子之年長矣,而色若孺子,何也?’曰:‘吾聞道矣。’南伯子葵曰:‘道可得學邪?’曰:‘惡!惡可!子非其人也!……南伯子葵曰:‘子獨惡乎聞之?’曰:‘聞諸副墨之子,副墨之子聞諸洛誦之孫,洛誦之孫聞之瞻明,瞻明聞之聶許,聶許聞之需役,需役聞之于謳,于謳聞之玄冥,玄冥聞之參寥,參寥聞之疑始。”(白話大意是:大道之理是從副墨(文字)的兒子那里得來的,副墨的兒子從洛誦(誦讀)的孫子那里得來的,洛誦的孫子從瞻明(見解明澈)那里得來的,瞻明從聶許(心得)那里得來的,聶許從需役(實行)那里得來的,需役從於謳(詠嘆歌吟)那里得來的,於謳從玄冥(靜默)那里得來的,玄冥從參寥(高邈寥曠)那里得來的,參寥從疑始(迷茫之始)那里得來的。)
    這里借女偊之口說出,諷誦道德經典,亦是明曉大道之理的必要途徑之一,即觀心可得道,經引歸道真。
    總之,以德為本,以道為師,是莊子的修身之本和處世之根,全面深刻地反映了莊子修身明德知道的道德人生觀,與老子“圣人恒無心”、“執一以為天下牧”“處無為之事,行不言之教”的思想是一脈相承的。
                  (fanbenguizhen編輯)
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