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    德本財末,經營智慧——從《莊子》中的商道精神說起(一)

    眾所周知,莊子是我國歷史上的一位哲人與學者。《史記貨殖列傳》引《周書》曰: 農不出則乏其食,工不出則乏其事,商不出則三寶絕,虞不出則財匱少。財匱少而山澤不辟矣。此四者,民所衣食之原也 。說明了商業是人類生存的必需行業之一。作為一位達人,莊子是如何看待

     

    眾所周知,莊子是我國歷史上的一位哲人與學者。《史記·貨殖列傳》引《周書》曰:“‘農不出則乏其食,工不出則乏其事,商不出則三寶絕,虞不出則財匱少’。財匱少而山澤不辟矣。此四者,民所衣食之原也”。說明了商業是人類生存的必需行業之一。作為一位達人,莊子是如何看待財富與經商的呢?在《莊子》一書中,直接論及財富與經商的并不多,大多是作為其思想觀點的論據材料,與其他民生事象一起兼及提到的。這些論述,有的出自莊子之口,有的則通過后學及他人之口發出,如:
    《莊子·至樂》云:“夫富者,苦身疾作,多積財而不得盡用,其為形也亦外矣”。這是說,富有的人,勞苦身體,努力工作,積聚了很多錢財而不能充分使用,這樣對于護養自己的形體,豈不是背道而馳嗎?指出世人不能將財富正確應用,亦不符合天道規律。
    《徐無鬼》曰:“以德分人謂之圣,以財分人謂之賢”。是說以德施人稱為圣,以財施人稱為賢。
    《盜跖》記載:“均平為福,有余為害者,物莫不然,而財其甚者也。……為欲富就利,故滿若堵耳而不知避,且馮而不舍,可謂辱矣;財積而無用,服膺而不舍,滿心戚醮,求益而不止,可謂憂矣;內則疑劫請之賊,外則畏寇盜之害,內周樓疏,外不敢獨行,可謂畏矣。此六者,天下之至害也,皆遺忘而不知察,及其患至,單以反一日之無故而不可得也。故觀之名則不見,求之利財則不得,繚意絕體而爭此,不亦惑乎!”指出均平是福,多余是害,凡物沒有不是這樣的,而財貨更甚。接著批評了一些人,為了求富逐利,所以積財高于墻而不知足,并且貪求不舍,可以說是取辱了;聚積財貨而無所用,專意營求而不舍,滿心煩惱,希求增多而不知止,可以說憂愁了;在家中就擔心小偷竊賊,到外面就畏懼盜寇的傷害,里面筑墻修樓,嚴備強守,外面不敢獨行,可以說是畏懼了;這六種,是天下的大害。大家都忘記了而不去弄個明白,等到災難到來,希望竭盡財富來保全性命,但求過一天太平日子也不可能。這時,名也見不到了,利也見不到了,鬼迷心竅地來爭這些東西,豈不是太糊涂嗎!”
    《盜跖》中又記載:“無行則不信,不信則不任,不任則不利。故觀之名,計之利,而義真是也”。借子張與滿茍得的對話,說明了利益與德行仁義之間的關系,沒有德行就不能取信,不能取信就不被任用,不被任用就不能獲利。所以從名來看,從利來算,仁義才是要緊的。
    《讓王》記載:“不以所用養害所養。……夫大王亶父,可謂能尊生矣。能尊生者,雖貴富不以養傷身,雖貧賤不以利累形”。借大王亶父之口說出了,不要因用來養的東西傷害所要養護的。象大王亶父這樣,可以說夠珍重生命了。能尊重生命的,即使富貴也不以昧養而傷害身體,即使貧賤也不以利祿累害身體。
    《莊子·德充符》云:“故圣人有所游,而知為孽,約為膠,德為接,工為商。……四者,天鬻也;天鬻者,天食也”。
    這段文字,可以從兩方面解讀。一方面,天有正度,物有因則,一切人事物用,皆為道生,因德而成。圣人的境界是“處天地之和,從八風之理,適嗜欲于世俗之間,無嗔恚之心,行不欲離開世,被服章,舉不欲觀于俗,外不勞形于事,內無思想之患,以恬愉為務,以自得為功,形體不敝,精神不散。”由于圣人已經基本不受常道制約,所以圣人悠游自適,而以智巧為災孽,以誓約為膠執,以市惠為交接手段,以工巧為商賈途徑。圣人不圖謀慮,哪里還用智巧?順任自然,哪里還用膠執?渾然無缺,哪里還用德行?不求謀利,哪里還用通商?在圣人眼里,(智約德商)這四者是天所養,天養就是受自然的飼養。既然受自然的飼養,哪里還需用人為?
    另一方面,對于常道中的其他人來說,這四個方面還是必須的生存法則,因為“吾之患,為吾有身;若吾無身,有何患?”
    ……
    上面這些論述的片段,可從不同角度對莊子的財富觀與商道論以窺一斑。就莊子本人來說,他顯然是重生輕利、淡薄名利富貴的。正如《讓王》所言:“故養志者忘形,養形者忘利,致道者忘心矣”。當時,身處群雄逐鹿中原、諸子百家爭鳴的環境,莊子以道為本、逍遙而游、無心無情、安時處順、體道求真,與老子唯獨屬于不“取合諸侯”的行列,懷抱道德學術,而獨立于天地間,平心靜氣地審視著周圍的一切。根據《莊子》一書記載,當楚王或其他人想聘請莊子時,他均以廟堂的神龜或祭祀的犧牛婉言謝絕,表明己志;當有人以拜見王侯獲得賞賜而以之驕溢于莊子時,他亦直言相告,寧可積精全神,守德合道,暢達人生,常處天和,安享天樂,而不肯“以物為事”,累形傷神,以利害性;寧可葆光守真,獨樂其志,堅守生命的自由,也不求聞達于諸侯。始終不敖倪于萬物,不譴是非,而與世俗處,樂道不已,怡然自得。同時,在莊子筆下所記載的諸如列子、曾子、原憲、屠羊說、顏回、顏闔等輕利重道、善于尊生的有道君子或義士,這些都是莊子的同盟軍。但當別人有難相求時,莊子又能大義凜然,《說劍》中記載了莊子辭千金弗受,而以三劍說服趙文王停止斗劍取樂的故事,至今讀來依然蕩氣回腸。
    總之,《莊子》中體現的財富觀念與商道精神,就是道體商用,德本財末。莊子雖不主張逐利積財,但其書中所闡發的圣人治身、以道馭術的思想,卻對今天的商業活動仍有很大啟發。《莊子》中記載了不少有道工匠,通過修身而心與物化,從而在技藝上達到鬼斧神工的境界。商業亦然,以道德經商,明了道的運行規律從而洞察天機、準確把握商機,自覺修養德行從而知曉財富規律、合理應用財富,以和為貴,內省外修,商才是有道之商,才可正確造福于民。否則,商業只是斂財損身之業,商人亦不能改變“貪賈”的形象。任何時候都是這樣。
    (責任編輯:huitian)
    版權聲明:本文章來自德道根文化·老子學院網,文章網址:http://www.aiguiren.com/home/html/zhuangzi/20110131/818.html請轉載時注明!

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